List of Crimes and Sentences UK
List of Crimes and Sentences UK
In the United Kingdom, the sentences for crimes depend not only on the offense itself but also on factors such as the plea, criminal history, and personal circumstances of the offender. There are five main types of sentences: discharge, fines and compensation, driving disqualification or penalty points, community orders, and prison sentences. A suspended sentence is typically a community order with the condition that any breach will lead to imprisonment. Life sentences subject offenders to certain conditions for the rest of their lives, but not necessarily continuous imprisonment. In rare cases, a ‘whole life term’ means the offender will never be released from prison.
List of Crimes and Sentences UK - When determining a sentence in the UK, the court takes into account:
- The type of crime committed.
- The relevant laws and sentencing guidelines.
- Credit for an early guilty plea.
- The offender’s criminal history.
- The offender’s personal and financial circumstances.
Advising clients on potential sentences for specific offenses is a crucial aspect of providing professional legal services. It allows individuals to make informed decisions about their pleas and understand the potential outcomes of their cases.
It is essential to have proper representation during sentencing hearings. A solicitor will advocate fully on behalf of the defendant to obtain the best possible sentence. Quality advocacy often plays a key role in achieving a favorable outcome in a case.
Sentences available in the UK differ for adults and young people, with young people classified as those aged 10-17.
List of Crimes and Sentences UK - Types of Criminal Sentences under UK Law:
- Discharge: The court may find someone guilty of an offense but decide not to impose a criminal conviction. Discharges are primarily given for minor offenses. There are two types: a) Absolute discharge: No further action will be taken. b) Conditional discharge: The offender won’t be punished unless they commit another offense within a specified period (up to 3 years). If the conditional discharge is breached, the offender can be re-sentenced for the original offense and sentenced additionally for the new offense.
- Fine and Compensation: Fines are the most common criminal sentences, given for less serious crimes that don’t warrant community or prison sentences. The amount of the fine depends on the severity of the crime and the offender’s ability to pay. Compensation orders may also be imposed to require the offender to pay restitution to the victim.
- Disqualification from Driving and Penalty Points: Courts may disqualify offenders from driving for various offenses, and penalty points can be added to their driving license upon conviction for motoring offenses.
- Community Sentence: Imposed for offenses too serious for discharge or a fine but not serious enough for a custodial sentence. The court can order the offender to fulfill specific requirements, such as unpaid work, curfew, supervision, drug or alcohol treatment, and more.
- Prison Sentence: Reserved for serious offenses where a custodial sentence is considered the appropriate punishment or when the public needs protection from the offender. There are three types of prison sentences: a) Suspended Sentence: The offender is given a prison sentence but doesn’t go directly to prison. Instead, they must comply with community sentence requirements during a specified period. Breaching the requirements may lead to imprisonment. b) Determinate Sentence: The court fixes the length of the prison sentence, and the offender serves half of the sentence in custody and half in the community under license. c) Indeterminate Sentence (including life sentences): The court sets a minimum time the offender must spend in prison, often given for serious violent or sexual offenses. The parole board decides whether the offender is safe and suitable for release after the minimum period.
- Whole Life Term: In extremely serious cases, the court may impose a whole life term, meaning the offender will never be released from prison.
List of Crimes and Sentences UK - Types of Sentences for Young People under UK Law:
Types of Sentences for Young People under UK Law:
For offenders aged 10-17, the courts have various sentences available, including:
- Discharge (similar to adults).
- Fine (similar to adults, with the financial responsibility often falling on the parent or guardian).
- Referral Order: The offender attends a youth offender panel to address their offending behavior and make amends for the harm caused.
- Youth Rehabilitation Order: A community sentence with specific requirements to be fulfilled over up to three years.
- Custodial Sentence: A Detention and Training Order (DTO) in the most serious cases, aiming to rehabilitate the young offender through training and education.
The length of a life sentence served in prison in the UK varies. On average, it is around 15 years before being considered for parole. However, exceptionally serious crimes may result in much longer imprisonment.
Admitting guilt can lead to a reduction in the criminal sentence, often up to one-third. This is because it saves time and resources in the criminal justice system and encourages cooperation in the resolution of cases.
The UK media often incorrectly states that someone “walked free from court after being sentenced” when the offender is not sent to jail. However, non-custodial sentences impose restrictions and punishments such as curfews and community service. Failure to comply with these restrictions can result in further punishment or imprisonment.
Seriousness of Crimes:
The seriousness of theft can vary significantly, ranging from minor shoplifting to large-scale theft involving substantial sums of money. Depending on the severity of the offense, the case may be handled in different courts, namely the Magistrates’ Court or the Crown Court.
For less serious theft offenses, such as shoplifting, the case would typically remain in the Magistrates’ Court. Here, the maximum sentence for an “either-way offense” (offenses that can be tried in either the Magistrates’ or Crown Court) is 6 months. However, if the theft involves higher sums of money or has a broader impact on victims, it would be deemed more serious, and the case would be sent to the Crown Court, where higher penalties can be imposed, according to the law.
The type of court that handles the case depends on the individual offense’s severity. In the Magistrates’ Court, either a magistrate or a District Judge will preside over the case, while in the Crown Court, a judge and jury will be responsible for deciding the outcome of the trial.
For more severe crimes, known as “indictable only offenses,” such as murder, rape, manslaughter, robbery, possession of a firearm, and causing death by dangerous driving, the case must be heard in the Crown Court, as they are considered the most serious criminal offenses.
Regarding contempt of court, this refers to actions that disrupt or obstruct the court’s proceedings or show disrespect to the court. Contempt can be classified as direct contempt, which occurs within the courtroom, or indirect contempt, which happens outside the courtroom, like disobeying a court order. The judge has the authority to find someone in contempt of court and can impose various punishments, including fines or imprisonment, depending on the seriousness of the offense.
Furthermore, the document provides information about penalties for drug offenses and other specific offenses, as well as mandatory minimum sentences for certain circumstances, such as three strikes rules for domestic burglary, Class A drug trafficking, and other offenses involving firearms or offensive weapons.
It’s crucial for individuals involved in criminal proceedings to seek proper legal representation to navigate the complexities of the legal system effectively.
Types of Prison Sentences
ypes of custodial sentences for adult offenders include:
Life sentence: For serious crimes like murder, offenders are sentenced to life imprisonment. The actual time served will be determined by a tariff set by the court, taking into account punishment, deterrence, and public safety. After release, they remain on life license.
Indeterminate Custodial Sentence (ICS): Used for severe sexual and violent offenses with penalties of 10 years or more, potentially leading to life imprisonment. It is considered when an Extended Custodial Sentence (ECS) is deemed insufficient.
Extended Custodial Sentence (ECS): Applied to sexual or violent offenses with a maximum penalty of no more than 10 years. The sentence is determinate, with prisoners eligible for parole consideration at the halfway point. Extended supervision periods are imposed for violent and sexual offenders.
Determinate custodial sentence: The court sets a fixed term of imprisonment, with the first half served in custody and the second half on license. Violating license conditions can lead to recall to prison.
Release on licence for sex offenders: Offenders may be released on license after a custodial sentence for a sexual offense, subject to supervision and conditions.
Suspended sentence: The court imposes a prison sentence but suspends it, provided the offender doesn’t commit further offenses within a specified period.
Deferred sentence: Sentencing is postponed until a future court date, usually up to one year, to observe the defendant’s behavior during that time.
Custodial sentences for young offenders:
Young Offenders Centre: Offenders aged 18 to 21 may be detained if their offense would result in imprisonment for those 21 or older. The maximum term is four years.
Juvenile Justice Centre Order: Offenders under 18 receive a fixed period of six months to two years, with half served under close community supervision.
In some cases, under-18s may receive sentences longer than two years for exceptionally serious offenses.
List of Offences 6.4
|False Imprisonment||Common Law|
|Assault or battery||Common Law|
|Indecent exposure||Section 4||Vagrancy Act 1824|
|Indecent exposure||Section 28||Town Police Clauses Act 1847|
|Conspiring or soliciting to commit murder||Section 4||Offences Against the Person Act 1861|
|Administering poison, or wounding, with intent to murder||Section 11||Offences Against the Person Act 1861|
|Threats to kill||Section 16||Offences Against the Person Act 1861|
|Wounding and causing grievous bodily harm: Wounding with intent||Section 18||Offences Against the Person Act 1861|
|Wounding and causing grievous bodily harm: Inflicting bodily injury||Section 20||Offences Against the Person Act 1861|
|Maliciously administering poison||Section 23||Offences Against the Person Act 1861|
|Abandonment of children under two||Section 27||Offences Against the Person Act 1861|
|Assault occasioning actual bodily harm||Section 47||Offences Against the Person Act 1861|
|Child stealing||Section 56||Offences Against the Person Act 1861|
|Drunk in charge of a child under 7 years||Section 2||Licensing Act 1902|
|Cruelty to children||Section 1||Children and Young Person Act 1933|
|Allowing persons under 16 to be in brothels||Section 3||Children and Young Person Act 1933|
|Causing or allowing persons under 16 to be used for begging||Section 4||Children and Young Person Act 1933|
|Give / cause to be given intoxicating liquor to a child under 5 years||Section 5||Children and Young Person Act 1933|
|Exposing children under seven to risk of burning||Section 11||Children and Young Person Act 1933|
|Prohibition against persons under 16 taking part in performances endangering life and limb||Section 23||Children and Young Person Act 1933|
|Infanticide||Section 1||Infanticide Act 1983|
|Rape||Section 1||Sexual Offences Act 1956|
|Procurement of a woman by threats||Section 2||Sexual Offences Act 1956|
|Procurement of a woman by false pretences||Section 3||Sexual Offences Act 1956|
|Administering drugs to obtain or facilitate intercourse||Section 4||Sexual Offences Act 1956|
|Intercourse with a girl under 13||Section 5||Sexual Offences Act 1956|
|Intercourse with a girl under 16||Section 6||Sexual Offences Act 1956|
|Intercourse with defective||Section 7||Sexual Offences Act 1956|
|Procurement of defective||Section 9||Sexual Offences Act 1956|
|Incest by a man||Section 10||Sexual Offences Act 1956|
|Incest by a woman||Section 11||Sexual Offences Act 1956|
|Buggery where the victim is under 16*||Section 12||Sexual Offences Act 1956|
|Indecency between men (gross indecency)||Section 13||Sexual Offences Act 1956|
|Indecent assault on a woman||Section 14||Sexual Offences Act 1956|
|Indecent assault on a man||Section 15||Sexual Offences Act 1956|
|Assault with intent to commit buggery||Section 16||Sexual Offences Act 1956|
|Abduction of a woman by force or for the sake of her property||Section 17||Sexual Offences Act 1956|
|Abduction of unmarried girl under 18 from parent or guardian||Section 19||Sexual Offences Act 1956|
|Abduction of unmarried girl under 16 from parent or guardian||Section 20|
|Abduction of defective from parent or guardian||Section 21||Sexual Offences Act 1956|
|Causing prostitution of women||Section 22||Sexual Offences Act 1956|
|Procuration of girl under 21||Section 23||Sexual Offences Act 1956|
|Detention of a woman in a brothel or other premises||Section 24||Sexual Offences Act 1956|
|Permitting a girl under 13 to use premises for intercourse||Section 25||Sexual Offences Act 1956|
|Permitting a girl between 13 and 16 to use premises for intercourse||Section 26||Sexual Offences Act 1956|
|Permitting defective to use premises for intercourse||Section 27||Sexual Offences Act 1956|
|Causing or encouraging prostitution of, or intercourse with, or indecent assault on, girl under 16||Section 28||Sexual Offences Act 1956|
|Causing or encouraging prostitution of a defective||Section 29||Sexual Offences Act 1956|
|Man living on earnings of prostitution||Section 30||Sexual Offences Act 1956|
|Women exercising control over prostitute||Section 31||Sexual Offences Act 1956|
|Sexual intercourse with patients||Section 128||Mental Health Act 1959|
|Indecent conduct towards young child||Section 1||Indecency with Children Act 1960|
|Aiding, abetting, counselling or procuring the suicide of a child or young person||Section 2||Suicide Act 1961|
|Procuring others to commit homosexual acts (by procuring a child to commit an act of buggery with any person, or procuring any person to commit an act of buggery with a child)||Section 4||Sexual Offences Act 1967|
|Living on the earnings of male prostitution||Section 5||Sexual Offences Act 1967|
|Burglary (by entering a building or part of a building with intent to rape a child)||Section 9||Theft Act 1968|
|Supplying or offering to supply a Class A drug to a child, being concerned in the supplying of such a drug to a child, or being concerned in the making to a child of an offer to supply such a drug.||Section 4||Misuse of Drugs Act 1971|
|Inciting girl under 16 to have incestuous sexual intercourse||Section 54||Criminal Law Act 1977|
|Indecent photographs of children||Section 1||Protection of Children Act 1978|
|Offence of abduction of a child by parent||Section 1||Child Abduction Act 1984|
|Offence of abduction of child by other persons||Section 2||Child Abduction Act 1984|
|Possession of indecent photographs of children||Section 160||Criminal Justice Act 1988|
|Abduction of Child in Care/ Police Protection… take away/induce away/assist to run away/ keep away||Section 49||Children Act 1989|
|Recovery of missing or unlawfully held children||Section 50||Children Act 1989|
|Abuse of Trust||Section 3||Sexual Offences (Amendment) Act 2000|
|Traffic in prostitution||Section 145||Nationality, Immigration and Asylum Act 2002|
|Rape||Section 1||Sexual Offences Act 2003|
|Assault by penetration||Section 2||Sexual Offences Act 2003|
|Sexual assault||Section 3||Sexual Offences Act 2003|
|Causing a person to engage in sexual activity without consent||Section 4||Sexual Offences Act 2003|
|Rape of a child under 13||Section 5||Sexual Offences Act 2003|
|Assault of a child under 13 by penetration||Section 6||Sexual Offences Act 2003|
|Sexual assault of a child under 13||Section 7||Sexual Offences Act 2003|
|Causing or inciting a child under 13 to engage in sexual activity||Section 8||Sexual Offences Act 2003|
|Sexual Activity with a Child||Section 9||Sexual Offences Act 2003|
|Causing or inciting a child to engage in sexual activity||Section 10||Sexual Offences Act 2003|
|Engaging in sexual activity in the presence of a child||Section 11||Sexual Offences Act 2003|
|Causing a child to watch a sexual act||Section 12||Sexual Offences Act 2003|
|Child sex offences committed by a children or young persons||Section 13||Sexual Offences Act 2003|
|Arranging or facilitating commission of a child sex offence||Section 14||Sexual Offences Act 2003|
|Meeting a child following sexual grooming etc.||Section 15||Sexual Offences Act 2003|
|Abuse of position of trust: sexual activity with a child||Section 16||Sexual Offences Act 2003|
|Abuse of position of trust: causing or inciting a child to engage in sexual activity||Section 17||Sexual Offences Act 2003|
|Abuse of position of trust: sexual activity in the presence of a child||Section 18||Sexual Offences Act 2003|
|Abuse of position of trust: causing a child to watch a sexual act||Section 19||Sexual Offences Act 2003|
|Sexual activity with a child family member||Section 25||Sexual Offences Act 2003|
|Inciting a child family member to engage in sexual activity||Section 26||Sexual Offences Act 2003|
|Sexual activity with a person with a mental disorder impeding choice||Section 30||Sexual Offences Act 2003|
|Causing or inciting a person, with a mental disorder impeding choice, to engage in sexual activity||Section 31||Sexual Offences Act 2003|
|Engaging in sexual activity in the presence of a person with a mental disorder impeding choice||Section 32||Sexual Offences Act 2003|
|Causing a person, with a mental disorder impeding choice, to watch a sexual act||Section 33||Sexual Offences Act 2003|
|Inducement, threat or deception to procure sexual activity with a person with a mental disorder||Section 34||Sexual Offences Act 2003|
|Causing a person with a mental disorder to engage in or agree to engage in sexual activity by inducement, threat or deception||Section 35||Sexual Offences Act 2003|
|Engaging in sexual activity in the presence, procured by inducement, threat or deception, of a person with a mental disorder||Section 36||Sexual Offences Act 2003|
|Causing a person with a mental disorder to watch a sexual act by inducement, threat or deception||Section 37||Sexual Offences Act 2003|
|Care workers: sexual activity with a person with a mental disorder||Section 38||Sexual Offences Act 2003|
|Care workers: causing or inciting sexual activity||Section 39||Sexual Offences Act 2003|
|Care workers: sexual activity in the presence of a person with a mental disorder||Section 40||Sexual Offences Act 2003|
|Care workers: causing a person with a mental disorder to watch a sexual act||Section 41||Sexual Offences Act 2003|
|Paying for the sexual services of a child||Section 47||Sexual Offences Act 2003|
|Causing or inciting child prostitution or pornography||Section 48||Sexual Offences Act 2003|
|Controlling a child prostitute or a child involved in pornography||Section 49||Sexual Offences Act 2003|
|Arranging or facilitating child prostitution or pornography||Section 50||Sexual Offences Act 2003|
|Causing or inciting prostitution for gain||Section 52||Sexual Offences Act 2003|
|Controlling prostitution for gain||Section 53||Sexual Offences Act 2003|
|Trafficking into the UK for sexual exploitation||Section 57||Sexual Offences Act 2003|
|Trafficking within the UK for sexual exploitation||Section 58||Sexual Offences Act 2003|
|Trafficking out of the UK for sexual exploitation||Section 59||Sexual Offences Act 2003|
|Administering a substance with intent||Section 61||Sexual Offences Act 2003|
|Committing an offence with intent to commit a sexual offence (in a case where the intended offence was an offence against a child)||Section 62||Sexual Offences Act 2003|
|Trespass with intent to commit a sexual offence (in a case where the intended offence was an offence against a child)||Section 63||Sexual Offences Act 2003|
|Exposure||Section 66||Sexual Offences Act 2003|
|Voyeurism||Section 67||Sexual Offences Act 2003|
|Trafficking people for exploitation||Section 4||Asylum and Immigration (Treatment of Claimants, etc) Act 2004|
|Causing or allowing the death of a child or vulnerable adult||Section 5||Domestic Violence, Crime and Victims Act 2004|
A reference to an offence in this list includes:
- A reference to an attempt, conspiracy or incitement to commit that offence, and
- A reference to aiding, abetting, counselling or procuring the commission of that offence.
Unless stated otherwise, the victim of the offences listed above will be under 18.
Cautions and discharges for the offences listed above will apply.